Jill Middendorf published the following paper in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research:
Tissue engineered cartilage is a widely recognized method for the repair of focal cartilage defects. These cartilage constructs must provide mechanical support and function in the joint. To fully understand the function of cartilage constructs and to meet recommendations provided by the FDA, multiple mechanical properties of engineered cartilage constructs need to be measured. Although many studies have identified the compressive properties, few have examined the frictional and shear properties. This study is the first study to perform three mechanical tests (compression, friction, and shear) on a human tissue engineered cartilage implant. Results show compressive and frictional properties improve with increased construct maturation, while shear properties remain constant. This study suggests the various mechanical and biological properties of tissue engineered cartilage improve at different rates, indicating thorough mechanical evaluation of tissue engineered cartilage is critical to understanding the performance of repaired cartilage.